Scaling and Root Planing is intended to provide a healthy tissue environment in which tissues re-adapt to normal tooth surfaces. Periodontal disease is caused by a buildup of calculus, plaque, and stain on the crowns and root surfaces of teeth. It can begin as localized gingival inflammation and progress to serious disease that result in major damage to the soft tissue and the bone that supports the teeth. Left untreated, this disease progresses to the ultimate loss of teeth. In periodontal disease, gingival tissue may detach (pull away) from teeth, and periodontal pockets form.